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Bibi Fatemeh Mooasvi Nezhad

Institut pour le dialogue interreligieux, Iran

There is ample evidence that women usually do not play a direct role in the start and end of wars. The wars begin on the basis of political and economic disagreements and end with the agreement on curtailing military operations and the lengthy dialogue of politicians behind closed doors. This is a common state of war, and of course all relations are unstable, and the world is ready for a new war at any moment, such wars that have proven to bring no change except destruction and damage to the world. The problem with these formal approaches to peace building and ending war is that women are often absent or systematically excluded from formal and political peace processes because women are absent from key positions as decision makers, either military leaders or military commanders in the most countries even in the 21st century. It is therefore natural that women lack the skills needed to engage in formal peace talks and, if they participate in the process, are usually influenced by male dominance and It will be the common logic of politics. In formal peace processes, gender is not considered and the main women's concerns are not negotiated.

Local peace organizations may resist women's participation and involvement. Each of the groups engaged in peaceful activities can re-establish hypotheses about the appropriate roles of women in society. However, the presence of female negotiators does not guarantee that gender equality issues will be put on the peace agenda. All actors in formal peace processes - men or women - must have the awareness and capacity to draw attention to the deplorable situation and concerns of men and women. Therefore, the key role of women in the peace process should be found somewhere outside the normal and stereotyped paths of politics.
If one considers the components of sustainable development such as economic development, educational equality, economic justice, and cultural and political equality, the key role of women in achieving lasting peace is to be sought.
In the last two decades, the approach of international organizations to the role and function of women in preventing and ending wars has changed. With the passage of the Beijing Declaration and subsequent Security Council Resolution 1325 in 2000, the focus on the adverse effects of war on women became more and more focused. The passage of the resolution underscored the emphasis on gender in all areas, especially the peace process In the meantime, various bodies of the United Nations have resolved to include gender perspectives in all humanitarian, military and civilian activities, and have prioritized the role of women in bringing about lasting peace in war-torn societies. To this end, the United Nations has set specific timetables to assess progress in achieving gender equality and empowerment of women and to enable them to participate in all activities related to conflict prevention and peace process, and to institutions, governments, regional organizations.
The relationship between the status of women and peace is a reciprocal relationship affecting each other and reinforcing each other. Women play a prominent role in the informal peace process, but their capacities and abilities to make decisions during wars and as policymakers in the context of society's transition from war to peace are ignored. To do so requires opportunities for women in post-conflict situations to strengthen their participation in the peace process. Women should participate in informal peace processes, including working in groups, networks and NGOs towards formal processes, including negotiating, interpreting and enforcing peace agreements, as well as planning economic, social and cultural reconstructions, Participation in democratic elections after resolving conflicts - as voter and electorate - disarmament and reintegration programs, and peacekeeping operations. It is hoped that by taking full advantage of women's abilities in all areas of peace, the ultimate aspiration of humanity for a world free of war and discrimination and full of peace, freedom and equality will be realized.. To this end, several suggestions are being made to further the role of women in world peace:
At National Level
Governments should establish policies to enhance the role of women and to ensure their equal participation at decision-making levels in national and international institutions, especially in matters related to peacekeeping, preventive diplomacy and activities related to mediation and peace negotiations and adhere to it.
Full respect for the norms of international humanitarian law in armed conflict and take the necessary measures to protect women and girls, in particular against abuses and sexual violence, rape and other forms of human rights violations are at the heart of their principles and laws.
Incorporate gender considerations into all their laws and programs and amend any law that violates women's legal and equality.
Organize a variety of programs and workshops to inform the public of the adverse effects of violence on women and encourage researchers to research on the physical, psychological, economic and social effects of adversaries on women and thereby raise awareness of women's empowerment and capacity to foster a culture of peace.
At International Level
International institutions and organizations should incorporate as many gender perspectives into their activities as possible, including gender equality in the holding of organizational positions.
The UN shall put as much support as possible for women living in situations of domestic and international armed conflict and take appropriate measures to take responsibility for the perpetrators of crimes against women.
Conduct conferences annually to assess the progress of resolutions and conferences on the role of women and their empowerment in peace, and to encourage governments to engage more and more women in formal war-prevention and peace-building activities.
In member states, establish peace research and academic centers and disseminate peace and anti-war thinking, provide scholarships for peace studies, and engage students and researchers in their research on peace. And encourage practical solutions to create a world free of violence. In this respect, it should take into account gender equality and make the most of the abilities of girls and women in this field.